Core Subjects of Law
Law is a set of rules that govern the actions of people and institutions, often within a nation-state. It has many important roles, including to protect property and liberty, to regulate commerce, to establish social order, to promote fairness in human interaction and to provide for the common good.
In its broadest sense, it encompasses not only the laws of a country but also international and regional laws and regulations. Some of these rules are expressed in legal instruments, such as treaties or conventions, and others have their origins in the custom and practice of the legal profession or in social institutions and partnerships.
The core subjects of law are presented for convenience; however, they overlap and intertwine with other aspects of society. Labor and employment law concerns a tripartite industrial relationship between workers, employers and trade unions. It includes collective bargaining regulation, and the right to strike. Individual employment law covers workplace rights, such as job security, health and safety or a minimum wage.
Criminal law involves a citizen’s right to a trial and appeals. It also concerns a defendant’s right to protection from prosecution and to be tried fairly.
Civil procedure and evidence law concern the rules that courts must follow as a case is built and as it proceeds through trials and appeals. It also involves the admission of material into court, such as witnesses and evidence.
There are many different schools of jurisprudence, some treating law as a science or mathematical system. There are also those who believe that judges resolve difficult questions by balancing the interests of all parties, and that this process involves the use of reason, logic and personal judgment.