The Basics of Law
Law is a system of rules that people use to govern themselves, including how they interact with each other and the world around them. It has many different purposes: to set standards, maintain order, resolve disputes, and protect freedoms and rights.
In a society, the law is often divided into many branches. The three main ones are criminal law, civil law and property law.
Criminal law deals with crime, such as theft or treason. The criminal justice system consists of courts and prisons. The law also includes the social institutions and communities that are responsible for governing a society.
Civil law is the study of laws that govern relations between people, such as property law and labour law. It also covers rules for business and contracts.
Property law is the study of people’s rights and duties towards tangible things, such as land, buildings or cars, and intangible things like bank accounts, shares or patents. It can be divided into real property (or land) and personal property, which is all movable items.
In law, right-holders justify their claim to certain privileges or powers by showing that they are under a correlative duty toward the right-object. The duty correlates with the claim, but the duty only vests when the factual condition is met. Usually, justification involves a legal norm grounding–other legal norms that are considered valid under the law.